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Unfeminine Revolutionaries? Tous les Kanak He was in his eighty-third year, She attended boarding school in Brisbane, studied French at the University of Queensland and then spent an extended period of time in Paris before completing her PhD. She took up a Tutor's He has subsequently added several novels, essays, and two volumes of poetry to his bibliography, as well Out of Darkness?

This image, exemplified in the words of Belgo-Congolese singer Je m'y trouvais le temps Sins of the Flesh: Zola, Naturalism and the Madeleine Redemption Narrative in Nineteenth-Century France As the patron saint of prostitutes and other "fallen women", Mary Magdalene - the "paradigmatic fallen woman in the European imagination" Rifelj, 91 - has endured over the centuries as a powerful icon for the redemption of the so-called sins of the Even for the most determined Ce fut Les plus brillants historiens sont Au Beau Risque Du "Retour".

James R. Lawler - Professor James R. Lawler, who was appointed to the foundation chair of French at UWA in , has died in Paris at the age of A graduate of Melbourne University with a doctorate from the Sorbonne, after lecturing at Queensland and Melbourne Universities James Lawler had departed to pursue his career in North America four years earlier, Ludicity in Surrealism and in Translation This article intends to bring to the fore the ludicity involved in Surrealist practices and productions, as well as demonstrate how this ludicity can be an integral part of the translation process and how the translation is received.

This involves adopting In the new millennium, we could almost take that literally given the recent proliferation of travel narratives Jean Dujardin, OSS , and the Art of the Spoof A genre comes of age when its conventions are well enough known to be played for laughs in a parody. For the purposes Nowhere is the mercurial Je le ferais si j'ai le temps. Je l'entends la nuit. Tu pourras juger ce vieux rat. The avenue to it was the proverb ohabolana.

Working with literate Malagasy in the capital, neglecting his teaching duties, he went through the Cousins and Parrett collection item by item to classify them linguistically , n.

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The question how to understand Malagasy indirection and ambiguity pervaded his mind and thinking all his life, becoming the model for his literary theories. Writing of one performer, he wrote that to give meaning to a proverb he was inquiring about, he first had to situate it, surround it, with the very words of the original performance; he could not imagine it outside its surroundings Paulhan, , Starting from a conventionally Eurocentric assumption that proverbs ohabolana were flexible and adaptable, Paulhan moved on to perceiving that they were fixed phrases, sanctified through tradition, closely related to the hainteny he would study next.

Madagascar and France upheld aesthetic principles that were opposed to each other, and the opposition kept undergoing transformations in his thinking. Fieldwork taught him one horn of the dilemma: for Merina mpikabary men-of-words , authenticity was realized by quoting commonplaces and readymade expressions.

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Their performances of verbal art eschewed the particular and the individual. Of course in his time in Madagascar, Paulhan himself could never have been anonymous; all colonials were highly visible.

Translation of "Tête de chou" in English

But through the years he came to understand the values that Louis Molet , 34 discovered later, the value a Merina man put upon staying hidden at home, not risking a snub by his neighbors; the value of keeping his feelings to himself and expressing only what people expect of him. Uneasy except in the heart of the group, it is by shunning individual hair styles, dress, and lamba that one makes his contribution to the uniformity and monotony of the Merina crowd. Ethically, men-of-words depended on precedent; discursively they quoted as much as they could from the tenin-drazana , the words of the ancestors.

From Antananarivo, Paulhan knew the richness, obscurity, and mystery of impersonal poetic language among the Merina; yet Paris was demanding individuality and innovation. For twenty years after leaving the Great Red Island, Paulhan brooded over the proverbs and the hainteny. Doubtless he quizzed them about their traditions. Remembering the mpikabary , he would title his book les Fleurs de Tarbes and settle the dilemma there. He worked at it through the war; made a new start in , by which time he was broadening its subject beyond Madagascar; and remained faithful to it right up to Yeschua, , Only one chapter came to light after the war.

Recalling what it was like to be a vazaha European fieldworker in Madagascar, he extracted from his thesis-in-progress a deeply reasoned, deeply felt essay about trying to learn to perform Merina verbal art Paulhan, It anticipates later linguistic research by Keenan and Ochs Paulhan frames his experience of foreignness as narrative, being disarmingly candid about his failures as a performer.

The more effort he made to speak an ohabolana or hainteny , the less did anything seem to be happening.

Chivalry and the Ideals of Knighthood in France during the Hundred Years War by Craig Taylor

At last, he says, he lost his initial curiosity; the very terms he used to formulate his anxiety lost their force. He takes his Parisian reader through the difficulties he experienced in the colony, trying to share the doings, concerns, and thoughts of the bourgeois Merina family who were his hosts. At one point, he writes, it began to seem that his speaking of Malagasy lacked weight or conviction; he felt like a university student who knows what he wants to say but lacks an ability to put it across.

He knew it was not a character flaw of his own; there must be a second, esoteric language inside ordinary language, momentarily piercing through it, always more authoritative Paulhan, , 27 , as there was and is in Madagascar. Here Paulhan discovered what linguists would verify, that there were two registers of Merina speaking, ordinary talk resaka and format speaking on ancient models kabary. Mastery of kabary entitled a speaker to allude, without repeating, to a mass of inherited wisdom, summarized by Paul Ottino:. The second thesis proposal, not shown in the essay, reverted to a more conventional plan, a linguistic classification of Malagasy proverbial phrases, thus assimilating the native genre ohabolana to a recognizable international genre.

Histoire Littéraire, XVIIe siècle - La notion de classicisme

He resolves the indecision by classifying proverbs in four categories while insistently keeping them embedded in their communicative context, in contrast to the dry enumerative procedures of Cousins and Parrett. He imitates the style of his Malagasy informants, who could only talk about a proverb by telling a story about it. Paulhan strongly preferred to write narratives about interactions, in which his statements are as truthful and valid, as explanation, as static descriptions of objects or formal analysis. And his little stories could tolerate obscurity, as the Merina always did.

It was clear to Paulhan that like ohabolana , they could be understood only in their performance setting, which was often an argument or dispute. Proverbs and hainteny were imbricated in each other; later formal study made clear their reciprocal relation Haring, , A note on the meanings in hainteny Paulhan, , shows his comprehension of the essence of oral literature as existing in variant forms.

The openings of each version are similar, but the versions differ in their latter half. To interpreting the variant forms as unified, Paulhan finds one central image, a woman whose lover is far away, or lost, or difficult to call back , In both he finds an abstract idea the reader is expected to discern.

Paulhan, , His methodological discovery was the attention to performance: the object of field study must be not the words of a proverb, but the communicative context within which it was spoken. The ohabolana had no meaning outside a performance context.

What Paulhan calls terror in European literature is the most forceful factor in the kabary he had observed in Madagascar: the special power commonplaces and readymade expressions have over speakers and audiences. But in Madagascar, the esprit was not so oppressed: the readymade expressions had been hallowed and bequeathed by the ancestors.


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Perhaps Paulhan had never given up the old dream of a language that would exactly express our thought, as Michel Beaujour has said , Mere representation anyway did not interest him; he was drawn to the secret and the unsaid from his experience with the hainteny. The secrecy and allusiveness in the Malagasy conception of language, as he discerned it from those old men in villages, as he saw it in the texts he and his predecessors collected, and as he guessed at it through his attempts to perform hainteny , still captivated him. Instead his model is the skill of the Malagasy mpikabary in positioning old words in a new setting.

Ambiguity rules. Certain oft-repeated words, he said, betray hypertrophy, overgrowth, excessive development, at the expense of the idea, of substance, indeed of language itself. Well before George Orwell, Paulhan pointed to the extra-semantic power of words like democracy and infinite , which he said are understood incompletely or not at all.

Ireland has a coastline of approximately 7,km. Each year two kilometres of land in sites around the coast are lost due to erosion and flooding and this rate is set to increase dramatically with global sea level rise. In other words, although much attention has been focused on territorial issues around Brexit, there is a startling lack of attention to the ecological dimension to sovereignty.

There is no point in claiming the right to ownership of land that is no longer there. What we have is the suggestion of a posthuman, post-nationalist sovereignty that sees territorial integrity as based not on separation and exclusion but on interdependence and inclusion.

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As sea levels continue to raise in response to climate change we urgently need to rethink the effects of our economic models and lifestyle choices on our island home. Texts are famously defined by contexts and the learning and teaching of modern languages must be ever mindful of the contexts in which they are practised and taught. What we might ask is can we assume that these institutional contexts will somehow be able to remain indifferent to the major ecological challenges of our time?

Wetware in that they were a community of teachers and scholars — an universitias magistrorum et studentium — and hardware in the form of lecterns, libraries and private mail systems. Though these emergent universities in Bologna, Paris, Oxford, Prague largely originated from pre-existing monasteries or cathedral schools, they represented the beginning of a sundering of education and clerical hegemony that had been a hallmark of Western Christendom for centuries.

Even if the clergy would continue to exercise considerable influence, the university became increasingly aligned with secular power and sovereigns were soon to spot the political advantages in having an educated class that was prepared to support its economic, social and military interests against those of an often predatory papacy. Thus, we might label this first form of university organisation the monarchical university to indicate the nature of ducal or regal patronage that allowed the universities to develop an autonomous identity outside the perimeter fences of ecclesiastical institutions.

In terms of knowledge organisation, it is important to remember a crucial element of continuity was the transmission of Latin manuscripts which permitted the translatio studiorum, the carrying of classical antiquity to the High Middle Ages. It was not enough to store this knowledge, of course, it had to be transmitted, processed and recorded. The data-processing lecture, the data-storing university library and the data-transmitting mail network were part of an overall media system that would allow for the cumulative and recursive production of knowledge over several centuries.

The changing nature of monarchy would ultimately usher in a form of knowledge organisation that would spell the end of monarchy itself as a dominant form of political expression. A characteristic of the British and French monarchies in the 16th and 17h centuries is the shift to a more strongly territorial notion of power consolidated around notions of cultural and linguistic specificity.

When the French Revolution puts an end to royal power, the natural context for new institutionalised forms of knowledge is the nation-state. The purpose of this university, what I am going to call the national university, is to prepare students to be future citizens of the state. The Bildung that is dispensed is not simply a matter of individual character formation but it is designed to prepare the future graduate for public service, hence the increasing emphasis on the teaching of national language, history, geography and literature.

Insurgent nationalism, the collapse of empire and the anti-imperial and anti-colonial struggles in different parts of the globe ensured the centrality of the paradigm of the national university to knowledge organisation in developed and developing nations until the closing decades of the last century. From the s onwards a radical reorganisation of the world economic system, loosely referred to as globalisation, created pressures for new forms of knowledge organisation. Five main features of the globalization era have been: the growing frequency, volume and interrelatedness of cultures, commodities, information and peoples across time and space; the increasing capacity of information technologies to reduce and compress time and space; the diffusion of routine practices for processing global flows of information, money, commodities and people; the emergence of institutions and social movements to promote, regulate, oversee or reject globalisation and the emergence of new types of global consciousness or ideologies of globalism which give expression to new forms of social connectedness described as cosmopolitanism.

Important geopolitical contexts for the emergence of globalisation were the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early s and the spectacular emergence of the Asian economies — Japan, China, South Korea, Singapore — which has led to a fundamental shift in the global basis of economic production. Not surprisingly the relentless drive towards deregulation and the globalisation of production and consumption created unprecedented pressures for the traditional nation-state paradigm and its form of knowledge organisation.

The internationalisation of university rankings, the institutional implantation of campuses in different geographical territories, the active recruitment of foreign students only, of course, if the students are prepared to pay dearly for this education and the vertiginous rise in the control and surveillance logic of corporate managerialism, all point to the estrangement of the university from the earlier nation-state paradigm. This is not say that the national university has been totally usurped by the corporate university anymore than the national university in Europe in the 19th century signalled the immediate end of the monarchical university.

Forms inevitably overlap but the core argument here is that forms of knowledge organisation inevitably respond to broader societal changes. The challenge of the Anthropocene — the era of human-induced climate change — is precisely the need to question deeply-help assumptions, to think the unthinkable and to develop new forms of knowledge responsive not just to our current predicament but to the planet which will be inherited by those who come after us.

Essays in French Literature and Culture

The need to orient knowledge to different ends by taking means seriously requires among other things that we reconsider the infrastructures of knowledge, in particular those whose avowed aim is the support and promotion of research, universities. This is where we might speculate on the emergence of the transitional university, a form of knowledge organisation that is directed to the creation of a carbon-neutral, sustainable and resilient economy and society.

In what follows I will try to suggest why at a conceptual level the transitional university represents a radical departure from conventional ways of accommodating environmental issues. I will then argue that consideration of modern languages can potentially help us to engage with a number of core concerns in new critical forms of knowledge organisation.

Any organisation is at its most basic level is a process that creates an environment. It allows you to draw general lines in the fabric of the whole. You make some kind of cut in the universe, to simultaneously create and order an inside from an outside. So what kind of cut do we make when dealing with climate change? So far there seem to have been three [worlds] of irreducible facts: matter reducible to what can be theorized in physico-mathematical terms , life understood more specifically as a set of terms, that is, affections, sensations, qualitative perceptions, etc.

Advents, for Meillasoux, are forms of emergence without precedent. In the transition from non-life to life, the laws of biological life were not somehow contained in the pre-life world. Combinations that were inherent in the organisation of the living could be imagined as possible cases of the World of matter but not as latent in it, as if it were a ghostly potential force.

In the transition from the Holocene to the Anthropocene we are arguably living through one of these radical discontinuities in the fabric of what has come before, an Advent moment that ushers in a new World. When we pause to think of what the Holocene brought in its wake — agriculture, advanced forms of technology, urbanisation, animal domestication, the births of languages and religions and translation — the entry into a new geological era, the anthropocene, characterised by unboundedness, incalculability and unthinkability poses fundamental challenges to our habitual forms of knowledge organisation and institutional expression.

So what future then for the university? How might we transition to the transitional university?