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If the cultural phenomenon of the scold was absent or perceived differently in other cultural contexts, the reasons for those differences are well worth exploring, for there is no shortage of allusions to the stereotypical shrew in pre-modern Europe, accusations that often had serious repurcussions in witch trials, for instance Kallestrup Two examples will suffice to illustrate this point. On 10 June , the municipal council in Porto met to deliberate about Pedro Alvarez, a troublemaker in their midst. Pedro evidently caused much havoc through his tongue, yet officials never used the term bradar to explain his misbehaviour, nor ever labelled him a bravo.

To scold was to cause a raucous, a public disturbance, an action that clearly men could and did commit, yet the scattered references to the scold found in Portuguese sources indicate that authorities targeted women as the culprit. Time after time the brava was depicted as a cantankerous woman bulldozing her way through the lowest level of public space, a source of discord on a persistent basis.

The abolishment of which needs no other foundation than that the office holder is a woman who is not a legitimate person to officiate in judicial cases, in which she does not have nor should have the right of intervention. Oliveira , XVII, In place of that old and odious system that targeted the brava , the city proposed that henceforth any infractions of that nature be dealt within the regular judicial system, from which convictions the crown would continue to receive its due. He further stipulated that the severity of the penalties depended on the circumstances and extent of the harm committed.

Nevertheless, Oliveira found that in the distant past, for certain cases of recidivism, women renowned for being argumentative were placed in the pillory with an iron bridle in the mouth. He noted as well that the revenue from those fines used to belong to the office of the chief alcayde or governor of Lisbon, but later was transferred to the crown, and the public auction for the office of collecting those fines was awarded to a woman, for which reason she was called the rendeira das bravas — the collector of the fines imposed by the collector herself on female scolds.

Curiously, it had taken Lisbon officials centuries to make that observation. That office was typically awarded to a male bidder, and while the administration and jurisdiction of the office was modified, the victuals officer continued to operate. The change implemented in Lisbon, and supported by the crown, was on how those women were charged, who could charge them, and who could gain from those charges.

As of , anyone in the capital city who fell victim to the insults and injuries of a female scold had to initiate a complaint with the local judge, as opposed to having recourse to a city-appointed and sanctioned office, contracted out to a private citizen who offered the highest bid to operate that office. In pre-modern Portugal, many judicial and administrative offices were farmed out to the highest bidder. The rendeira das bravas , for instance, paid a set price to the municipal council, and then aimed to make a profit through the number of bravas she sentenced and fined.

Regardless, the fact remains that one of the few public offices available to women in pre-modern Lisbon was eradicated in the second half of the eighteenth century. The municipal council stressed that the woman entrusted with dealing with the bravas inflicted undue hardships on the would-be bravas , but we have no way of knowing the veracity of those statements, whether the argument was based on problems with the woman who held that office at the time, or if the difficulties with the overzealous rendeira das bravas were of longstanding.

Public offices were generally the domain of men, but women could and did inherit public offices which they commonly rented out, or used as dowries, with the positions often filled by their future husbands or sons. Men occasionally disagreed, but disagreements between men did not turn into a shrill, cacophonous, and inherently disruptive force, at least not as far as male observers were concerned.

By contrast, the female scold was symbolic of womankind run amok, and the need to rein her in. To date, none of the examples found in the Portuguese archives links the scold with prostitution or other deviant sexual behaviour. In pre-modern Portugal there appears to have been a clear distinction between mouthy women and sexually loose women, though this may be due to the scarcity of examples from Portugal of actual cases of women being punished as bravas.

The common scold in pre-modern Portugal, therefore, was a woman of common origins who, while plying her trade, had to be outspoken, vigorous, forceful, assertive, decisive, unyielding, unwavering, and rude and ruthless, if necessary — not traits associated with the ideal woman. The same brochure informed the readers that in fights that broke out between market women, the women used their tongues as swords Anonymous 17??

Furthermore, it was argued, such women opposed and oppressed the hapless henpecked husband, as seen in another eighteenth-century pamphlet. In a list of satirical reflections, the author maintained that one of the things that sent men out of their homes was the ralhos da mulher — scolding from their wives Costa , 6.

This was seen in the writings of some elite men of the seventeenth century, and can be traced in other reports, some of which were penned by foreigners. Was the Princess critical of men, in general, or of the French visitor, in particular? Unfortunately, the low literacy rate among pre-modern Portuguese women means that those critiques were lost to us.

Com extinção de fundo, ambientalistas temem prejuízo à preservação da Floresta Amazônica

The Portuguese sources show that from at least the late fourteenth century, male authorities claimed that they were plagued with the cantankerous woman, a plague that endured for several centuries. Despite their efforts, officials were confronted with a certain class of women who could not or would not be as docile as gender ideologies prescribed. Afonso, Belarmino Augusto Trabalhos de Antropologia e Etnologia , 25, pp.

Iowa Evil by Carlotta Smitko

Andrada, Diogo de Paiva de Casamento Perfeito []. Anonymous 17?? As Galinheiras com as Pecheiras.

Ciclo de Debates Gênero e Sexualidade - Direito ao Corpo e à Liberdade de Expressão

Catalumna: En la Imprent de Francisco Crevarz. Attreed, Lorraine C. The York House Books, , 2 vols.

Women’s and Gender Studies in Portugal: An Overview from an Anglicist Perspective

Barnes-Karol, Gwendolyn; Spadaccini, Nicholas Espelho de Casados []. Porto: Imprensa Portugueza. Basto, A. Boose, Lynda E. Shakespeare Quarterly , 42 2 , pp.

Mulheres guerreiras na cultura

Braga, Isabel Drumond Braga, Isabel Drumond a. Valladolid: Ediciones U.

Valladolid, pp. Braga, Isabel Drumond b. Braga, M. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade, pp. Butler, Sara M. Journal of Social History , 40 2 , pp. Cereta, Laura Collected Letters of a Renaissance Feminist , trans. Diana Robin. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. Lisbon: Offic. Paris: Librairie Larousse. Downs-Gamble, Margaret Edwards, Kathryn A.

Fernandes, Maria de Lurdes Porto: Universidade do Porto, 5 , pp. Porto: Faculdade de Letras da U. Ferreira, J. Pinto ed Gillespie, Raymond As nossas equipas de futebol eram as do continente — Sporting, Benfica.

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Compara-o ao conselho de ministros onde existe um porta-voz. David Munir viu os lugares de culto espalharem-se em Portugal ao longo dos anos. Natural do Bangladesh, esteve primeiro em Londres, em , e depois Espanha. A 7 de Outubro de casaram-se. Usei durante um ano, quando estava no Veio de Inglaterra quando tinha 19 anos.

polticas pblicas e aes afirmativas conscincia em debate portuguese edition Manual

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